Vaclav Petrik discovered a strain of microorganisms that transmute plutonium into a harmless waste
Dr Rhadda Roy issued a patent for transmute
radioactive waste into non-radioactive.
A study and research conducted in the 60ís and
TRANSMUTATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE.
BY: Louis Kervran of Biological Transmutations
Sent to GDR by: JC
Do the reactions which I propose have a possible application for the destruction of radioactive wastes?
At first glance one might remark that my reactions have not been observed in the presence of radioactive phenomena. But one should not dismiss a possible application a priori, without studying it, and I have done no research on radioactive substances.
An objection presents itself: since these very transmutations which
were studied and applied are
happening at a biological level, it is unthinkable to anticipate that microorganisms could transmute radioactive wastes into stable nuclides.
The destructive effect of the radioactive radiance is being utilized to kill cells and to sterilize various products. But nothing is absolute Not even this law of the biological effects of radiation!
A bacterium which can support ten million roentgens for eight hour has been discovered! The mortal dose for man is 500 roentgens. This bacterium, of the Pseudomonas type, was discovered in 1958 in Los Alamos U.S.A., in the water of a nuclear reactor. It liked the medium so much that it reproduced every twenty minutes.
A little later in Lucas Heights, Australia, a verification of the same
kind was made. In stored heavy water there were two million bacteria per
cm3. Only 1,000 of these bacteria were left when the heavy water came out
of the reactor. The content rose to10,000 at the exit of the ion exchanger.
These bacteria were of the Pseudomonas,Bacillus, and Achromobacter types. It can be seen that these bacteria can multiply in heavy water, which is not conducive to the life of most organisms.
However, we can see from the above that some bacteria can be cultured very readily on radioactive substances. It would be wise to find out both if these bacteria can help make the transmutations, and which ones they can make. Transmutations can also be made by mushrooms, algae and enzymes.
Here is a theoretical example: if strontium 90 could be "fritted" with fluorine, it would give non-radioactive silver (Sr90 + F19 -> Ag109), providing that the fluorine could enter in this manner in a nuclido-biological reaction.
Studies should be made to find out if C14 and K40 enter into the reactions of transmutations. It is Probable in the case of K40, for noticeable variations of this nuclid are found in the potato, for example. One thing is true: it is an almost stable nuclid. If formal proof were given that it did enter in the nuclido-biological reactions to give a stable or short-lived nuclid however, this would constitute a breach with the actual theory of radioactivity.
A study(*1) was carried out by L, Magos, Tuffrey, and T. W. Clarkson
(Research Council Laboratories of Carshalton, England), who used grindings
of rat kidneys
homogenized with adduction of NgCL2 (radioactive isotope 203Hg). Samples were tested at the Geiger counter at staggered times. The period of this isotope is 46 days. However, the diminution of activity corresponding to the disintegration of this radioactive isotope was much stronger than anticipated.
Where did the mercury go? Since it disappeared, everyone believed that it had "evaporated." But here again, isn't this an unverified assertion, deduced from the sole fact that mercury "volatilized"?
Meanwhile, it became apparent during the experimentation that mercury
does not "volatilize" regularly. For according to the law of diminution
of radioactive activity, there should have been a regular curve, exponential
aid well-known. However, a counting made sixteen hours after the first
verification showed clearly that there was a diminution of mercury, conforming to the law of radioactivity. But after 33 hours there was an un-expected diminution of mercury. After 48 hours the difference took on great proportions.
The merit of these researchers was in thinking that the phenomenon could be produced by a microbian action, that the latent period (which lasted at least sixteen hours) could correspond to the incubation period of a bacterial colony. Cannot the effect of toluene be explained by the fact that it kills the bacteria? However, this hypothesis was a priori hazardous because it was believed that bacteria do not attack heavy metals, the latter resisting all actions of biological products.
Penicillin kills bacteria, and mercury disappearance follows the same law as does a sterilized solution in the autoclave.
There is 50% more mercury lost in 48 hours in a contaminated medium. This event is not imputable to the disintegration of the radioactive isotope.
If one takes a sterile sample and inoculates it with only 1.10 -- 5M
of HgCl2 which has already started to lose its mercury, one verifies that
there is no latent period. The proliferation is immediate and in 24 hours
60% of the initial activity subsides, whereas a non-inoculated sample kept
later comparison loses only 2%.
The identification of the most active bacteria revealed a Klebsiella
aerogenes, a bacterium of the Proteus type, an active microorganism which
could not be identified, and a great number of other microorganisms carrying
on little or no activity at all. In the city water used for the experiment
was found the Pseudomonas pyocyanea, which is very active. A Diplococuus was also found, but it does not die from toluene; it only becomes partially inhibited.
Unfortunately, researchers considered nothing but the disappearance of mercury by volatilization. Nevertheless. they verified their theory. They declared the phenomenon to be a natural one, basing their hypothesis on the diminution of activity measured with the Geiger counter. Thus, haven't undisputed results received a weak interpretation, lacking essential analysis and measurement?
The researchers did not suspect that the disappearance was due to die
biological transmutation of mercury. Evaporation is negligible a priori;
mercury boils at 3600 C and its vapor tension is very low (40 to 500 C).
But the experiments were conducted at the ambient temperature of 20* C!
This fact should have alerted the researchers and could have prevented
them from adopting the postulation of
This experiment leads us to qualify what we said about radioactive elements:
it was not clear to us whether superior organisms (animal and vegetal)
performed biological transmutations on radioactive elements. However, the
behavior of bacteria is always full of surprises. Regarding the transmutation
of iron into copper, I mentioned in a previous book' that some bacteria
proliferate in pure sulfuric acid. I also cited some Psendomonas which
live in the heart of an atomic reactor in heavy water and receive more
than 1,000 times the mortal dose for human tissue. The same is true with
the Micrococcus radiodurans which resists 3,000 times the mortal dose for
a mammal. During the
experiment on mercury it was also found that there is a Pseudomonas species which "digest' radioactive mercury, making of it another element unidentified to this day. But what happened to the excess neutrons in the radioactive nucleus? Since there is a decrease in radioactivity there
should be no transmutation into another radioactive element. Might a "conversion" of neutrons into protons possibly have occurred? Only what remains at the end of
the experiment will allow the pronouncing of a verdict.
The perturbations caused by Y rays impede the reproduction of ADN. There
is a progressive death of the cells. However, the speed of reproduction
is generally considerable in a bacterium, which means that the bacterium's
enzymatic activity is considerable. This explains how bacteria can resist
an irradiation several thousand times greater than the dose that vegetal
animal matter can take.
Have we not here an open field where research concerning the elimination
of radioactive wastes can be conducted? I indicated this as a hypothesis
in 1960. Don't experiments of the type cited here seem perhaps to demonstrate
that it is indeed happening? If this possibility were to be established,
it would be a great event since we would then be able to study the destruction of the radioactive wastes which pose such a threat to humanity.
1 Transmutation a Faible Energie (end edit.), ht;lleillc Pub., 1878
(*1) "Volatilization of Mercury by Bacteria, "British
Journal of Industrial Medicine, October 1964, pp.294-98 112 Biological Transmutations
Vaclav Petrik discovered a strain of microorganisms that transmute plutonium into a harmless waste
In the 1980s, Vaclav Petrik, a Czechoslovakia expatriate living
in California, claimed to have discovered a strain of microorganisms which
could transmute plutonium into a harmless, non-radioactive substance. He
claimed this had been tested at a field downwind of Rocky Flats, Colorado,
which had been contaminated by an accident at a nuclear facility, and within
months all traces of radioactivity had vanished from the three acres test field after released of this organism.
Mr. Petrik, a commercial breeder of microorganisms for composite starter,etc.,
tried unsuccessfully to interest government scientist at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
When they gave him only a
polite brush-off, he became discouraged and gave up on the idea. He then returned to Prague. It is not known if he is still alive and exactly what strain of organism he used. Although he was said to
have said the microorganism was found in nature and not genetically engineered, but it is rare. Although, not verified it may be a member of the Genus Klebsia.
The 1960s, Louis Kervran ,a French scientists, published the book, biological transmutations, which was translated into English. It provides scientific support for the Petrik's claims. It may be available from Borderland science foundation in Bayside, California.
In the late 1970's or early 80's, a patent was issued to Dr Rhadda Roy, a physics at the University of Arizona, for a process to transmute radioactive waste into non-radioactive substances. It was entirely within the concepts of orthodox physics. It would have required such large amounts of electricity that it would cost too much to be practical.
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